In Oracle GlassFish Server 3.1 Release Notes at
the section "Required free ports" lists the ports opened by a GlassFish instance.
There may be other ports that are not described.
It would also help if this section contained some information (perhaps a cross-reference) on how the user can modify the various ports, particularly if they are not using the installer. It might also mention that the port numbers listed may be be different if the GlassFish instance is clustered.
This list is also incomplete because it does not mention the ports opened by the embedded MQ broker, some of which are dynamically-allocated. Although there is a cross-reference to the MQ admin guide it is difficult to find the required information there. Here is a short summary for JMS:
There's the main "JMS port", which may be configured using the GlassFish admin console, which is by default 7676 in a standalone broker. This port is opened when the GlassFish instance starts.
In addition, iff the application uses MQ, two other ports are opened which correspond to the MQ "tcp" and "admin" connection services. These ports are allocated dynamically by the OS.
These are described in the Message Queue Administration Guide here:
The page above also describes how those dynamic ports can be configured to be static if required (e.g. to pass through a firewall).