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Chapter 2
---------

Package Lifecycle
.................

This chapter provides an overview of the software package lifecycle with IPS.

Software packages go through a detailed lifecycle with IPS. Understanding
the various phases of the package lifecycle will help the developer and
administrator optimize their results.  The following sections provide a
high-level description of each state in the package lifecycle:

Creation
~~~~~~~~

    Packages can be created by anybody.  IPS does not impose any particular
    software build system or directory hierarchy on the part of package
    authors.  More detail about package creation is available in *Chapter 4*.
    Aspects of package creation are discussed throughout the remaining
    chapters of this guide.


Publication
~~~~~~~~~~~

    Packages are published to an IPS repository, either via HTTP or
    to the file system.  If desired, once packages are published they can
    converted to a ``.p5p`` package archive file.  To access software from an IPS
    repository, the repository can be added to the system, using the
    ``pkg set-publisher`` command, or accessed as a temporary source, using the
    ``-g`` flag to |pkg|.  Examples of package publication are shown in
    *Chapter 4*.

Installation
~~~~~~~~~~~~

    Packages can be installed on a system, either from an IPS repository,
    accessed over http://, https:// or file:// URLs, or installed directly
    from a ``.p5p`` package archive.  Package installation is described in more
    detail in *Chapter 5*.

Updates
~~~~~~~

    Updated versions of packages might become available, either
    published to an IPS repository, or delivered as a new ``.p5p`` package
    archive.

    Installed packages can then be brought up to date, either individually,
    or as part of an entire system update.

    It is important to note that IPS does not use the same concept of
    "patching" as the SVR4 packaging system did: all changes to packaged
    software are delivered by updated packages.

    The packaging system is optimized to install only the changed portions 
    delivered by an updated package, but essentially, package
    updates are performed in much the same way as package installs.  Package
    updating is described in more detail in *Chapter 5*.

Renaming
~~~~~~~~

    During a package's lifecycle, it might be desirable to rename a package.
    Often this is done for organizational reasons or to refactor packages.

    Examples of package refactoring would be where there is an interest in
    combining several packages into a single package, breaking a single
    package into multiple smaller packages, or a combination of the two.

    IPS gracefully handles actions that move between packages, and has
    capabilities to allow old package names to persist on the system,
    automatically installing the new packages when a user asks to install
    a renamed package.  Package renaming is described in more detail in
    *Chapter 10*.

Obsoletion
~~~~~~~~~~

    Eventually a package might reach the end of its life.  A package
    publisher might decide that a package will no longer be supported,
    and that it will not have any more updates made available.  IPS
    allows publishers to mark such packages as obsolete.

    Obsolete packages can no longer be used as a target for most
    dependencies from other packages, and any packages upgraded to an
    obsolete version are automatically removed from the system.  Package
    obsoletion is described in more detail in *Chapter 10*.

Removal
~~~~~~~

    Finally, a package can be removed from the system assuming that no other
    packages have dependencies on it.  Package removal is described in more
    detail in *Chapter 5*.

 
 
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