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pkg(5): image packaging system

This information is Copyright (c) 2010, Oracle and/or its affiliates.
All rights reserved.


1.  Introduction
    1.1. Date of This Document:


    1.2. Name of Document Author/Supplier:

        Shawn Walker, Oracle,
          on behalf of the pkg(5) project team

    1.3. Acknowledgements:

        This document is largely based on comments from the following
        individuals to whom the author is exceedingly indebted to:

        - Danek Duvall
        - Mike Gerdts
        - Stephen Hahn
        - Krister Johansen
        - Dan Price
        - Brock Pytlik
        - Bart Smaalders
        - Peter Tribble

2. Project Summary

    2.1. Project Description:

        "...the repository can be archived up, put on a CD, memory
        stick, 2D barcode, and protected by the Black Knight, fire
        moats, komodo dragons, etc." - Danek Duvall

        pkg(5) is primarily a network-oriented binary packaging system.
        Although some of the tools it provides support filesystem-based
        operations for publication, the primary expected use for package
        operations (such as install, update, search, etc.) is between an
        intelligent client and one or more servers that provide access
        to a package repository and/or other interactive services.

        This project seeks to define and establish an on-disk format
        (and corresponding container format), for the pkg(5) system,
        with the intent that it can enable the ubiquitous, transparent
        use of package data from filesystem-based resources.

        The changes proposed by this project are evolutionary, not
        revolutionary, in nature.  In particular, this project seeks
        to refine and adopt the existing repository format used by the
        pkg(5) depot server as the on-disk format.  Supplementary to
        that, it also seeks the addition of a container format to ease
        provisioning of the on-disk format, and the unification of the
        scheme used by the client and server to store package data.

    2.2. Problem Area:

        For some deployments, network-based package data access is not
        possible or is undesirable.  Concerns often cited in this area

        - lack of access control or ability to easily integrate with
          existing access control systems,

        - inability to rely on alternative (or existing) provisioning
          arrangements (such as NFS-based file servers),

        - environmental or procedural requirements that prohibit the
          ability to or use of a network-based service,

        - characteristics of network protocols (such as HTTP, etc.) that
          artificially limit functionality or performance (as opposed to
          iSCSI or other alternatives),

        - ease of administration of filesystem-based resources, and

        - ease of transferring package data.

3. Project Technical Description:
    3.1. Details:

        This project defines an on-disk format (and corresponding con-
        tainer format) that is intended for the supplemental or complete
        provisioning of package data at all stages of the package life-
        cycle.  That is, when package data is published, stored by the
        client or server, or otherwise used during package operations.

        The on-disk format (defined in detail later in this document)
        is intended to be distributable in its raw form (a pre-defined
        structure of directories and files) or within a container format
        (such as a zip file, etc.).

        Out of necessity, the use of filesystem-based resources (such as
        those provided by the on-disk format) will sometimes limit the
        operations that can be performed to a subset of those normally
        available when interacting with a network-based repository.  For
        example, search and publisher configuration may not be possible,
        and purely interactive services such as the BUI (Browser UI)
        offered by the depot server for a repository, RSS feeds, and
        others will not be available.

        Because of the wide-ranging impact of the changes required to
        implement this functionality, it is intended that the project
        be implemented in the following sequence:

        - Client Support for filesystem-based Repository Access

        - Depot Storage, Client Transport and Publication Tool Update

        - Client Storage and Image Format Update

        - Client and Depot Support for On-Disk Archive Format

    3.2. Bug/RFE Number(s):

        As an example of the kinds of defects and RFEs intended to be
        resolved by this project, see the following selection of bug IDs:

2152 standalone package support needed (on-disk format)
166 depot doesn't set directory mode when creating directories
2086 validate that a repository is really a repository in pkg.depotd
6335 publisher repo with invalid certificate information shouldn't
    prevent querying other repos
6576 pkg install/update support for temporary publisher origins desired
6940 depot support for file:// URI desired
7213 ability to remove published packages
7273 manifests should be arranged in a hierarchy by publisher
7276 /var/pkg metadata needs reorg (looks busy)
8433 client and pull need to refer to refer to "repository" instead of
8722 advanced repository metadata store needed
8725 versioning information for depot and repository metadata needed
9571 CachedManifest should be named FactoredManifest
9572 CachedManifest should allow consumers to specify cache location
9872 publication api should use new transport subsystem
9933 ability to control repository creation behaviour or removal of it
10244 caching dictionaries as a class variable prevents multi-image and
    repo search
11362 Image update dying when trying to talk to a disabled and offline
11740 publishers with installed packages should not be removable
12814 publisher prefixes should be forcibly lower-cased or case
14802 ability to have separate read / write download caches
15320 pkgsend will traceback if unable to parse server error response
15371 repository property defaults

    3.3. In Scope:

        Filesystem-based data resourcing for package operations.

    3.4. Out of Scope:

        Package signing and fine-grained access control for package

4. On-Disk Format Technical Description:
    4.1. Overview:

        The on-disk format is intended to exist both in a raw format as
        a pre-defined structure of directories and files, and in an
        archive format which is primarily a simple container for
        the raw format.

    4.2. Raw Format:

        4.2.1. Goals:
            The goals for the raw on-disk format include:

            - unification of client and server package data storage
              for data common to both,

            - transparent usage of package data regardless of operation
              or use by client or server,

            - ease in composition and decomposition of package data
              stored within by publisher or package,

            - re-use of existing publication tools for on-disk format,

            - enablement of future publication tools to automatically
              be able to manipulate or use on-disk format, and

            - ease of provisioning.

        4.2.2. Raw Format specification:

            The pkg(5) repository format is a set of directories and
            files that conform to a pre-defined structure.
            For a version 3 repository (the current format), the
            structure is as follows:

                    <catalog v1 files>
                    <index files>
                    <first two letters of file hash>/
                    <in-flight transaction files>
                cfg_cache (optional repository configuration file)

            Version 4 of the repository format eliminates the potential
            for unintended collisions between package metadata from
            different publishers and simplifies composition and decomp-
            osition of repository content.  The top-level is an optional
            shared storage space for data common to all publishers in
            the repository, while the publisher subdirectory contains
            data specific to a publisher.  It is essentially a nested
            repository format, and can be defined as follows:

                file/ (optional)
                publisher/ (optional)
                    <prefix>/ (optional)
                        catalog/ (optional)
                            <catalog v1 files>
                        file/ (optional)
                            <first two letters of file hash>/
                        index/ (optional)
                        pkg/ (optional)
                        trans/ (optional)
                            <in-flight transaction files>
                        pub.p5i (optional)
                pkg5.repository (required)

            By default, repository operations will store data in the
            publisher-specific location found under publisher/<prefix>
            for new repositories.

            In the case that the top-level file/ directory is used,
            automatic decomposition of contents into its publisher-
            specific components will not be possible unless
            corresponding package manifests are also available. 

            To support easy composition, filtering, and creation of
            package archives, directories above marked with the text
            '(optional)' must not be required.  The behaviour of
            consumers accessing the contents of the repository should
            be as follows based on the directory accessed:

            - file/
                This optional directory serves as a place to store file
                data for more than one publisher.  Package files are
                stored in gzip format using a sha1sum of the file as the
                filename, and then the first two letters of the filename
                as the parent directory's name.

            - publisher/<prefix>/catalog/
                If absent, consumers should determine the list of
                packages available based on the manifest files present
                in the publisher/ subdirectory.  If present, consumers
                should expect v1 (or newer) catalog files, or none at
                all, to be contained within.

            - publisher/<prefix>/file/
                Consumers should always check this subdirectory first
                (if present) when retrieving package file data if the
                publisher is known.  Package files are stored in gzip
                format using a sha1sum of the file as the filename, and
                then the first two letters of the filename as the parent
                directory's name.

            - publisher/<prefix>/index/
                If absent, search functionality should be disabled for
                this publisher, or a fallback to 'slow manifest-based
                search' performed.  If present, consumers should expect
                v1 (or newer) search files, or none at all, to be con-
                tained within.

            - publisher/<prefix>/pkg/
                If absent, search must be disabled for this publisher
                even if index is present.  If present, manifests are
                stored in pkg(5) manifest format using the uri-encoded
                version of the package FMRI as the filename, and using
                the uri-encoded package FMRI stem (name) as the parent
                directory's name.

            - publisher/<prefix>/trans/
                If absent, this directory will be created during
                publication operations.  If present, in progress
                transaction data is stored in a directory named
                by the open time of the transaction as a UTC UNIX
                timestamp plus an '_' and the URI-encoded package
                FRMI.  As an example:


            - publisher/<prefix>/pub.p5i
                This pkg(5) information (p5i) file should contain
                suggested configuration information for clients such as
                origins, mirrors, alias, etc.  Consumers can use this to
                provide clients with initial or suggested configuration
                information for a given publisher.  If not present, the
                publisher's identity should be assumed based on the
                directory structure, while the refresh interval should
                be assumed to be 4 hours.

            - pkg5.repository
                This file serves as an identifier and a place to store
                configuration information specific to the repository.
                It *is not* an equivalent to the existing cfg_cache
                file which will no longer be used.  Its format and
                structure are as follows:

                version = <integer>

            Any information found in the cfg_cache used in the previous
            repository format related to a publisher is now stored in
            the pub.p5i file for the related publisher.  (Examples of
            information include origins, mirrors, maintainer info,
            etc.)  As a result, the cfg_cache file is no longer used.

            Any depot-specific properties, such as the feed icon, logo,
            etc. are now completely managed using SMF or a user-provided
            configuration file.  This change was made not only to sim-
            plify configuration, but to separate depot configuration
            from repsitory configuration.

            An example version 4 repository might be structured as


                version = 4

    4.3. Archive Format:

        4.3.1. Requirements:

            The requirements for the on-disk archive format include:

            - support for archives greater than 8GB in size,

            - support for files in archive greater than 4GB in size,

            - support for efficient storage of hard links,

            - support for pathnames sigificantly greater than > 255
              characters in length,

            - core Python bindings exist or can be easily created using
              an existing library,

            - can be a container of compressed files, as opposed to a
              compressed container of uncompressed files,

            - open, royalty-free, well-documented format with wide
              platform support and acceptance,

            - multi-threaded decompression and compression possible,

            - creation and basic manipulation of package archives
              possible using widely-available tools,

            - simple composition and filtering of its content should be
              possible, and

            - random access to the archive contents must be possible
              without reading the entire archive file.

        4.3.2. Candidates:

            A number of potential archive formats have been considered
            for use, including:

            - 7z (7-Zip)
            - cpio
            - pax (portable archive exchange format)
            - ZIP

            The evaluations provided for each format here are not in-
            tended to be exhaustive; rather they focus on the specific
            requirements of this project.  For more information about
            these formats, and the documents used to evaluate them,
            please refer to section 6 of this proposal.

        4.3.3. 7z Evaluation:

            The 7z format was rejected for the following reasons:

            - Does not permit random access to archive contents or
              requires the entire archive file to access the contents
              and adding this would require a custom variation of 7z.

            - Although the 7z format supports compression methods other
              than LZMA, a primary motivator for using 7z would be the
              ability to use LZMA natively as part of the conatiner
              format.  However, the tradeoffs in terms of CPU and memory
              footprint currently make LZMA unsuitable for pkg(5) when
              compared to other compression algorithms such as those
              used by gzip(1).

            - Use of the 7z format would require integration of the LZMA
              SDK (which also provides a basic 7z API in C) and the cre-
              ation of python bindings or the integration of a third
              party's (such as pylzma).

            - No native support for extended attributes or UNIX owner/
              group permissions.

        4.3.4. cpio Evaluation:

            The cpio format doesn't natively support random access to
            archive contents, but the format itself doesn't prevent
            this.  An index could be added first file in the archive
            with the information needed to provide fast, random access
            to the archive contents.

            The cpio format was rejected for the following reasons:

            - The length of pathnames in cpio archives is limited to
              256 characters for the portable format.

            - Available tools vary significantly in maximum archive size

            - The portable cpio format stores a copy of the file data
              with every hard link in an archive instead of simply
              storing a pointer to the source file in the archive.

        4.3.4. PAX Evaluation:

            The PAX format meets all of the requirements except that of
            random access to archive contents.  However, the format
            itself doesn't prevent this.  A table of contents file could
            be supplied as the first file in the archive with the info-
            rmation needed to provide fast, random access to the con-
            tainer contents.

        4.3.5. ZIP Evaluation:

            The ZIP format meets all of the requirements listed above
            (assuming that ZIP64 extensions are used), with the ex-
            ceptions listed below for which it was rejected:

            - The use or implementation of some of the functionality
              documented in the .ZIP file format requires a license from

            - While random archive content access is possible, the ZIP
              file format stores the index for the archive at the end of
              the archive (as opposed to the beginning).  This increases
              the number of round trips that would be required for
              potential remote random content access.  It also means
              that extraction requires multiple seeks to the end of the
              file before any content can be extracted from the archive,
              which can be detrimental to performance for some media
              types (optical, etc.).

        4.3.6. Evaluation Conclusion:

            Based on the requirements set forth in section 4.3.1, the
            PAX format was selected as the on-disk archive format
            for pkg(5) packages.  However, to enable efficient access
            to the archive contents, an index file needs to be present
            as the first file in the archive.

            Early evaluations of an unoptimised prototype were performed
            using a repository containing all packages for build 136 and
            unbundleds.  The on-disk size of the repository was appox-
            imately 4.98G.  The resulting archive was 5.0G in size, with
            an archive index file 9.7M in size (when the index was comp-
            ressed using gzip).

            First time access to the prototype archive for extraction of
            a single file after creation yielded a total time of approx-
            imately 5 seconds compared to approximately 36-42 seconds
            for utilities such as pax(1), tar(1), or gtar(1).

            Creation of the archive took 7 minutes, 35 seconds on a
            custom-built Intel Core 2 DUO E8400, with 8GB Memory,
            and a 1TB 10000 RPM SATA Drive w/ 64MB Cache.

        4.3.7. Package Archive Specification:

            pkg(5) archive files will have an extension of 'p5p' which
            will stand for 'pkg(5) package'.  The format of these
            archives matches that defined by IEEE Std 1003.1, 2004 for
            the pax Interchange Format, with the exception that the
            first archive entry is tagged with an extended pax archive
            header that specifies the archive version and the version
            of the pkg(5) API that was used to write it.  In addition,
            the file for the first archive entry must be the index
            file file for the package archive.  The layout can be
            visualised as follows:

            | ustar header for pax header global archive data        |
            | pax global extended header data for archive            |
            | ustar header for pax header for archive index file     |
            | pax extended header data for archive index file        |
            | ustar header for package archive index file            |
            | file data for package archive index file               |
            | remaining archive data                                 |

            The archive and API version is stored in the header of the
            index file instead of the global header for two reasons:
            first, any headers in the global header are treated as
            though they apply to every entry in the archive, and
            secondly, the pax specification states that global headers
            should not be used with interchange media that could suffer
            partial data loss during transport.  Since the archive
            version primarily serves as a way for clients to reliably
            determine if a "standard" pax archive versus one with an
            index is being read, this approach seems reasonable.

            The reason for this limitation is to ensure that clients
            performing selective archive extraction can be guaranteed
            to find the location and size of the package archive index
            file without knowing the size of the header for the index
            file in advance (this layout ensures that clients can
            find the archive index and/or identify the archive in
            the first 2048 bytes).

            In addition, pkg(5) archives in this format make remote,
            selective archive access possible.  For example, a client
            could request the first 2048 bytes of a pkg(5) archive file
            from a remote repository, identify the offsets of the index
            and then retrieve it using a HTTP/1.1 byte-ranges request.
            Once it has the archive index file, it can then perform
            additional byte-range requests to selectively transfer the
            the data for a set of specific files from the archive.  This
            convention also optimises access to the archive for sources
            that are heavily biased towards sequential reads.

            The index file must be named using the following template
            and be compressed using the gzip format described by RFCs
            1951 and 1952, and formatted according to section 4.3.8:


                <index_file_number> is an integer in string form that
                indicates which index file this is.  The number only
                exists so that each index file can remain unique in
                the archive.  An archive may contain multiple index
                files to support fast archive additions.

                <index_version> is an integer in string form that
                indicates the version of the index file.  The initial
                version for this proposal will be '0'.

            However, if the first file in the archive is found to not
            use the layout or format shown above, or any of the index
            files in the archive are not in a format supported by the
            client (version too old or too new), the archive must be
            treated as a standard pax archive and some operations may
            not be possible or experience degraded performance.  The
            same is also true if the index file is found to not match
            the archive contents.

            All entries in the archive (excluding any archive index
            files) must conform to the repository layout specified in
            section 4.2.2 of this proposal.

            Since a pkg(5) repository can contain one or more packages,
            pkg(5) archive files can also contain the data for one or
            more packages.  This allows easy redistribution of a single
            package and all of its dependencies in a single file.

            Finally, it should be noted that only ascii character path-
            names are expected in the archive as the raw repository
            format does not use or support unicode pathnames.

        4.3.8. Package Archive Index Specification:

            The pkg(5) archive index file enables fast, efficient access
            to the contents of an archive.  It contains an entry for all
            files in the archive excluding the index file itself in the
            following format (also referred to as index format version


                <name> is a string containing the pathname of the file
                in the archive using only ascii characters.  It can be
                up to 65,535 bytes in length.

                <offset> is an unsigned long long integer in string form
                containing the relative offset in bytes of the first
                header block for the file in the archive.  The offset is
                relative to the end of the last block of the index file
                in the archive they are listed in.

                <entry_size> is an unsigned long long integer in string
                form containing the size of the file's entry in bytes
                in the archive (including archive headers and trailers
                for the entry).

                <size> is an unsigned long long integer in string form
                containing the size of the file in bytes in the archive.

                <typeflag> is a single character representing the type
                of the file in the archive.  Possible values are:
                    0 Regular File
                    1 Hard Link
                    2 Symbolic Link
                    5 Directory or subdirectory

                All values not listed above are reserved for future
                use.  Unrecognised values should be treated as a
                regular file.

            An example set of entries would appear as follows:


            It should be noted that other possible formats were
            evaluated for the index file, including those based
            on: JSON, XDR, and python's pack.  However, all other
            formats were found to be deficient for one or more
            of the following reasons:

            - larger in size

            - no streaming support (required entire index file be
              loaded into memory)

            - significantly greater parsing times using currently
              available Python libraries

            - required developing an envelope format that could
              contain the encoded data

5. Proposed Changes:

    5.1. Client Support for filesystem-based Repository Access:

        The pkg.client.api provided by pkg(5) will be updated to allow
        access to repositories via the filesystem.  All functionality
        normally offered by pkg.depotd will be supported.

        pkg(1) and packagemanager(1) will be modified to support the
        use of URIs using the 'file' scheme.  No user visible changes
        will be made to any existing subcommands or options except
        that URIs using the 'file' scheme will be allowed.

        When accessing repositories using the 'file' scheme, clients
        by default will not copy package file data into the client's
        cache (e.g. /var/pkg/download).  Instead, the transport system
        will treat configured repositories as an additional read-only

    5.2. Depot Storage, Client Transport and Publication Tool Update:

        The pkg.server.repository module will be updated to support
        the new repository format outlined in section 4.2.2.  Existing
        repositories will not automatically be upgraded, while new
        repositories will use the new format.  A new administrative
        command detailed below has been introduced to allow upgrading
        existing repositories to the new format.

        These changes will automatically allow the client to access
        repositories in the new format when using filesystem-based
        access.  Older clients will remain unable to access repo-
        sitories in the new format.

        The client transport system will be updated to support all
        publication operations and the publication tools and project
        private APIs will be changed to use the client transport

        The '-d' option of pkgrecv(1) will be changed such that if
        the name of a file with a '.p5p' extension is specified,
        and that file does not already exist, a pkg(5) archive
        file will be created containing the specified packages.
        If the file already exists, it will exit with an error.
        When pkgrecv(1) creates pkg(5) archive files, it will omit
        catalog and index data.

        Due to the transport changes above, pkgrecv(1) will also
        be able to use pkg(5) archive files as a source of package
        data.  pkgsend(1) will not support the use of pkg(5)
        archive files as a destination due to the publication
        model it currently uses.

        To support the expanded multiple publisher version 4 format
        of repositories, the depot server will be updated to respond
        to requests as follows:

        - If clients include the publisher prefix as part of the request
          path, then responses will be for that specific publisher's
          data.  For example:



        - The default publisher specified in the depot configuration
          will be used when responding to requests for operations that
          do not include the publisher prefix.  For example:


          ...provides a response identical to the first case where the
          publisher prefix was provided as part of the request.  Those
          expecting to maintain a large population of older clients
          should reassign publisher URLs down a level, to include the
          publisher explicitly although this is not required for
          correct operation.

        A new utility named pkgrepo will be added to facilitate the
        creation and management of pkg(5) repositories.  It will have
        the following global options:

        -s repo_uri_or_path
            A URI or path specifying the location of a pkg(5)
            package repository.

        -? / --help

        It will have the following subcommands:

        create <uri_or_path>
            Creates a pkg(5) repository at the specified location.
            Can only be used with filesystem-based repositories.

        publisher [<pub_prefix> ...]
            Lists the publishers of packages in the repository:

            <pub_1>   <num_uniq_pkgs> <num_pkg_vers> <cat_last_modified>
            <pub_2>   <num_uniq_pkgs> <num_pkg_vers> <cat_last_modified>

            Discards any catalog, search or other cached informaqtion
            found in the repository and then re-creates it based on
            the current contents of the repository.  Can only be used
            with filesystem-based repositories.

            By default, catalogs any new packages found in the repo-
            sitory and updates search indices.  This is intended for
            use with deferred publication (--no-catalog or --no-index
            options of pkgsend).  Can only be used with filesystem-based

                --no-catalog - doesn't add new packages
                --no-index - doesn't refresh search indices

        remove fmri_pattern ...
            Removes the specified package(s) from the repository.
            If more than one match is found for any given pattern,
            the exact FMRI must be provided.

            Can only be used with filesystem-based repositories.
            Upgrades the repository to the most current format if

            Has these options:

            -n determine whether the upgrade could be formed and exit
            -v show a summary of what will be done, the current format
               of the repository and what it will be upgraded to

    5.3. Client Storage and Image Format Update:

        To simplify and unify the storage format used by the client,
        and pkg(5) repositories, the format of the client image
        will be changed to use the structure described below.

        For a version 3 image (the current format), the structure is as

                <first two letters of file hash>/
                    certs/ (optional)
                    last_refreshed (optional)
                    <image catalog files>
                    <image catalog files>

        For a version 4 image (the proposed format), the structure is
        as follows:

                    <api search index files>
                            <repository composition cache files>
                    <api temporary files>
                <package manager data files>
                <client history files>
                    <license files>
                <salvaged filesystem objects>
                        <publisher signing certificates>
                    <otherwise as described in section 4.2.2>
                client ssl certificates>
                    <image catalog files>
                    <image catalog files>
            pkg5.image (client configuration file; was cfg_cache)

        A new property named 'version' will be added to the image
        and will be readonly (cannot be set using the set-property
        subcommand of pkg(1)).

        Existing images will not automatically be upgraded to the new
        format.  To enable the upgrading of existing images to newer
        formats, the following subcommands will be added:

            Updates the format of the client's image to the current
            format if possible.

    5.4. Client and Depot Support for On-Disk Archive Format:

        The pkg.server.repository module will be updated to support
        the serving of a repository in readonly mode using a pkg(5)
        archive file.

        The pkg.client.api transport system will be updated to support
        the usage of a pkg(5) archive file as an origin for package

        To support the specification of temporary origins, the install
        and update subcommands will be modified by adding a '-g' option
        to specify additional temporary package origin URIs or
        the path to a pkg(5) archive file or pkg(5) info file.  The
        '-g' option may be specified multiple times.  As an example:

            $ pkg install -g /path/to/foo.p5p \
                -g http://mytemprepo:10000/ \
                -g file:/path/to/bar.p5p \
                foo bar localpkg

        pkg(5) archive files used as a source of package data during an
        install or update operation will have their content cached by
        the client before the operation begins.  Any publishers found
        in the archive will be temporarily added to the image if they do
        not already exist.  Publishers that were temporarily added but
        not used during the operation will be removed after operation
        completion or failure.  Any package FMRIs or patterns provided
        will be matched using only the sources provided using '-g'.

        The pkg list and pkg info commands will also be updated by
        adding the '-g' option described above, with the exception
        that the '-g' option may only be specified once, and only
        the source named will be used for the operation.
        Using '-g' with the pkg list subcommand implies '-n' by default,
        unless '-f' is specified; it also implies '-a'.  To list all
        versions, the '-f' option must be used.  As an example:

            $ pkg list -g /path/to/foo.p5p
            NAME (PUBLISHER)  VERSION         STATE      UFOXI
            bar ( 1.0-0.133       known      -----
            foo ( 1.0-0.133       installed  -----

            $ pkg list -g file:/path/to/foo.p5p
            NAME (PUBLISHER)  VERSION         STATE      UFOXI
            bar ( 1.0-0.133       known      -----
            foo ( 1.0-0.133       installed  -----

            $ pkg list -f -g
            NAME (PUBLISHER)  VERSION         STATE      UFOXI
            foo ( 1.0-0.133       installed  u----
            foo ( 2.0-0.133       known      u----
            foo ( 3.0-0.133       known      -----

            $ pkg list -g file:/path/to/repo
            NAME (PUBLISHER)      VERSION     STATE      UFOXI
            repopkg ( 2.0-0.133   known      -----

            $ pkg list -g http://myrepo:10000
            NAME (PUBLISHER)       VERSION    STATE      UFOXI
            localpkg ( 3.0-0.133  known      -----

        Using '-g' with the pkg info subcommand implies '-r'.  The '-l'
        option cannot be used in combination with '-g'.  As an example:

        $ pkg info -g /path/to/bundle.p5p
                  Name: bar
               Summary: A useful complement to foo.
                 State: Not Installed
                  Name: foo
               Summary: Provides useful utilities.
                 State: Installed

        '-g' was chosen for the option usage described above to match
        the '-g' already used by set-publisher and image-create for
        origins, and due to the unfortunate existing usage of '-s'
        by the 'pkg list' subcommand.

6. Reference Documents:

    Project team members and community members have provided a number of
    informal comments that served as the basis for the goals of this

    - "new on-disk format?", 18 Jan. 2008:

    - "reorganising the repository and client metadata", 23. Sep. 2009:

    - "ZAP - Zip Archive Packaging", Sep. 2007:

    In addition, the following materials were referenced when writing
    this proposal:

    - "7z", 12 Apr. 2010:

    - "RFC2616: HTTP/1.1 Header Field Definitions", 01 Sep. 2004:

    - "cpio", 21 Mar. 2010:

    - "copy file archives in and out", 26 Mar. 2007:

    - "The gzip file format", Date Unknown:

    - "DragonFly File Formats Manual, cpio -- format of cpio archive

    - "A Quick Benchmark: Gzip vs. Bzip2 vs. LZMA", 31 May. 2005:

    - "Lempel Ziv Markov Algorithm and 7-Zip", 7 Feb. 2008:

    - "The Open Group Base Specifications Issue 6: pax Interchange
      Format, IEEE Std 1003.1, 2004 Edition"

    - ".ZIP File Format Specification", 28 Sep. 2007:

    - "ZIP (file format)", 17 Apr. 2010:
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