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This is a guide to explain various useful variables in Userland component
Makefiles.  To distinguish these from the Makefile(s) that are part of each
component distribution, the latter will be referred to as native Makefiles.

The following are the basics that just about every Makefile should have.  Most
have defaults, but can be overridden.

* BUILD_ARCH declares which architecture this component should be built for;
  possible values are: i386, sparc.  If not set, the component will be built
  for both.

* BUILD_BITS declares which bits this component should be built for and
  which binaries are the preferred ones (i.e. should be installed in /usr/bin);
  values are: 64, 64_and_32, 32, 32_and_64, and NO_ARCH.

* COMPONENT_NAME is typically a short name (e.g., vim).

* COMPONENT_VERSION is typically numbers separated by dots (e.g. 7.3).

* COMPONENT_SRC is where the archive is extracted; it has a default value of
  "$(COMPONENT_NAME)-$(COMPONENT_VERSION)".

* COMPONENT_PROJECT_URL is the general web site for the component.

* COMPONENT_ARCHIVE is the base name of the archive to be downloaded; it has
  a default value of "$(COMPONENT_SRC).tar.gz".

* COMPONENT_ARCHIVE_HASH is typically "sha256:" followed by the first output
  field of `sha256sum $(COMPONENT_ARCHIVE)`.

* COMPONENT_ARCHIVE_SRC defines what kind of object delivers the source.  This
  can be "git", "hg", or "svn" if the source comes from an SCM repository, and
  must be "none" if the source is checked into the Userland repository
  directly.

* COMPONENT_ARCHIVE_URL is where the archive can be downloaded from.  This is
  typically constructed from $(COMPONENT_PROJECT_URL) and $(COMPONENT_ARCHIVE).

* COMPONENT_BUGDB is the lower-case rendering of the BugDB cat/subcat; it has
  a default value of "utility/$(COMPONENT_NAME)".

* COMPONENT_ANITYA_ID is the project id for this software at
  https://release-monitoring.org which is used to track when a new version
  is available.

* COMPONENT_SIG_URL is the URL where the PGP signature for $(COMPONENT_ARCHIVE)
  can be found.  This can be used in addition to the hash in
  $(COMPONENT_ARCHIVE_HASH) to verify the correctness of the archive.  If
  COMPONENT_SIG_URL is present, then COMPONENT_ARCHIVE_HASH needn't be, but its
  presence is strongly encouraged to ensure that the archive contents don't
  change silently.  Note that when merging, because
  $WS/tools/.gnupg/pubring.gpg is a binary file, you will have to choose
  the parent or child version.  Pick one, then run:
	for cset in $(hg log -r 'parents()' -T '{node} '); do
		hg cat -r $cset $WS/tools/.gnupg/pubring.gpg | \
			gpg2 --homedir=$WS/tools/.gnupg --import;
	done
  before you 'hg commit' your merge.

* COMPONENT_LABEL is an arbitrary string that will be used as part of
  COMPONENT_SRC when building an archive from an SCM source repository.  It
  defaults to COMPONENT_VERSION.  It may be set to empty if desired.  See
  the relevant makefiles for the full composition.

* GIT_REPO can be used in place of COMPONENT_ARCHIVE_URL to pull the component
  source from the GIT repository referenced in the value.
* GIT_REV is the tag or changeset that you wish to pull from GIT.

* HG_REPO can be used in place of COMPONENT_ARCHIVE_URL to pull the component
  source from the Mercurial repository referenced in the value.
* HG_REV is the tag or changeset that you wish to pull from Mercurial.

* SVN_REPO can be used in place of COMPONENT_ARCHIVE_URL to pull the component
  source from the Subversion repository referenced in the value.
* SVN_REV is the tag or changeset that you wish to pull from Subversion.

* REQUIRED_PACKAGES is a list of packages required to build or run the
  component and its tests; it includes "system/library" by default.

The following are basic variables that must be set before including common.mk
if overriding the default:

* BUILD_STYLE declares what type of build process this component uses;
  possible values are: ant, archive (extract and copy), attpackagemake, cmake,
  configure, gnu-component, justmake, pkg (publish only), and setup.py.  See
  the corresponding file in make-rules for details.  The default value is
  'configure'.

  Based on the value of BUILD_STYLE, other variables are affected as follows:

  - If BUILD_STYLE is configure, CONFIGURE_ENV will automatically include
    CFLAGS, CXXFLAGS, and LDFLAGS.
  - If BUILD_STYLE is justmake, COMPONENT_BUILD_ENV will automatically include
    CC, CXX, CFLAGS, CXXFLAGS, and LDFLAGS.

* COMMON_TARGETS controls whether the standard build, configure, install,
  test, system-test targets are provided automatically.  Possible values
  are 'yes' and 'no'.  The default value is 'yes'.

* BUILD_TARGET, INSTALL_TARGET, TEST_TARGET, SYSTEM_TEST_TARGET allow
  overriding the default targets provided by COMMON_TARGETS.  If set to a
  non-empty value, they act as an override.  If set to an empty value the
  target will not be defined by common.mk.  Instead of overriding the standard
  targets, it is suggested that the appropriate COMPONENT_PRE_*_ACTION or
  COMPONENT_POST_*_ACTION variables be used instead.

* BUILD_TARGET defaults to $(BUILD_$(BUILD_BITS))

* INSTALL_TARGET defaults to $(INSTALL_$(BUILD_BITS))

* TEST_TARGET defaults to $(TEST_$(BUILD_BITS))

* SYSTEM_TEST_TARGET default is determined by $(TEST_TARGET); if TEST_TARGET
  is not $(NO_TESTS) or $(SKIP_TEST), the default value is
  $(SYSTEM_TESTS_NOT_IMPLEMENTED)

The following variables alter the compilation or build process for components:

* ASLR_MODE controls the application of Address Space Layout Randomization to
  ELF binaries during the build.  The possible values are: $(ASLR_ENABLE),
  $(ASLR_DISABLE), $(ASLR_NOT_APPLICABLE).  If $(BUILD_BITS) is $(NO_ARCH),
  $(BUILD_STYLE) is 'ant', or $(COMPONENT_BUGDB) starts with 'library',
  $(ASLR_NOT_APPLICABLE) is the default.  Otherwise, the default is
  $(ASLR_ENABLE).

When using a source code management system as the canonical source for a
component, the build automatically generates a source archive for the
component by pulling the source from the SCM and creating a tarball from
the pulled source.  This allows us to automatically store a copy of the
canonical source that we build from in our source archive cache and not
continually hammer on the component's SCM repo.  The source archive name
is automatically generated from the COMPONENT_NAME, COMPONENT_VERSION,
and {GIT|HG|SVN}_REV values.  Also, the source is archived and unpacked
in a directory using these values.   You should also define a hash for
this tarball in your Makefile similar to what you do with downloaded
source archives.


These two are both initialized in make-rules/shared-macros.mk rather than any
component-level Makefile, but are frequently referenced from the latter.
* COMPONENT_DIR is the top-level directory of the given component in question.
* SOURCE_DIR is set to $(COMPONENT_DIR)/$(COMPONENT_SRC).

Additional pre/post configure, build, or install actions can be specified in
a component Makefile by setting them in one of the following macros.  None of
these have default values.  These are mostly used for miscellaneous set-up or
clean-up tweaks as their names suggest.
* COMPONENT_PRE_CONFIGURE_ACTION is used by several components to clone a
  source directory.
* COMPONENT_POST_CONFIGURE_ACTION
* COMPONENT_PRE_BUILD_ACTION
* COMPONENT_POST_BUILD_ACTION
* COMPONENT_PRE_INSTALL_ACTION
* COMPONENT_POST_INSTALL_ACTION
* COMPONENT_PRE_TEST_ACTION
* COMPONENT_POST_TEST_ACTION

If component specific make targets need to be used for build or install or
test, they can be specified via the following.
* COMPONENT_BUILD_TARGETS is not usually set because the default target of most
  open source software is the equivalent of a 'build' target.  This needs to be
  set when building the software requires a different target than the default.
  You should not override make macros here, but in COMPONENT_BUILD_ARGS.
* COMPONENT_INSTALL_TARGETS has a default value of "install".  Very few
  components need to alter this.
* COMPONENT_TEST_TARGETS has a default value of "check".  Several components
  need to set this to "test".

* COMPONENT_BUILD_ARGS is probably the mostly useful variable here for solving
  subtle build issues.  When you need to override a MACRO set in the native
  Makefile of a component, do so by adding something like:
     COMPONENT_BUILD_ARGS += MKDIR="$(MKDIR)"
  Quoting is often important because values with white-space can be split up,
  yielding the wrong results.
* COMPONENT_BUILD_ENV is for when you just need to override things in the
  calling environment, like PATH.
* COMPONENT_INSTALL_ARGS is mainly used for altering target directories;
  there are also COMPONENT_INSTALL_ARGS.$(BITS) versions.
* COMPONENT_INSTALL_ENV is mainly used for altering target directories.
* COMPONENT_PUBLISH_ENV is so far only used to work around Python issues when
  used by "pkgdepend generate", though the variable may be extended in the
  future for general "gmake publish" usage.
* COMPONENT_TEST_ARGS is little used.
* COMPONENT_TEST_ENV is mainly used for altering PATH and friends.

If your component needs to do some kind of cleanup after a "gmake test" run,
such as kill processes after doing a "gmake test" run, then this can be done
by setting COMPONENT_TEST_CLEANUP.

If you have created master test results file(s) for your component in the
COMPONENT_TEST_RESULTS_DIR directory, then in order to successfully compare
your test results against that master results file, you might need to
normalize some of the test output lines. This is done via a set of regular
expressions that are applied to the test results. There are some global
default ones in the COMPONENT_TEST_TRANSFORMS definition in shared-macros.mk,
but your component Makefile might have to += some more for specific transforms
that need to be applied to the test output for just this component.

* SKIP_TEST_AT_TOP_LEVEL inclusion of this variable in a component Makefile
  will cause that component's tests to be skipped when running "gmake test"
  at the top level.  It's often used for excluding long-running tests
  that may slow down comprehensive component testing.

* COMPONENT_POST_UNPACK_ACTION is for making minor alterations to the unpacked
  source directory before any patching has taken place.  It should almost never
  be used.
* COMPONENT_PREP_ACTION is used to make alterations to the unpacked and patched
  source.  It should be used with care.

For components that have a configure target, the following macros are used to
control the options and arguments passed:

* If BUILD_BITS is set before shared-macros.mk is included, the default directories
  used for various configure options as documented below will change.  For
  example:

  if BUILD_BITS=64 or BUILD_BITS= 64_and_32 explicitly:
  	32-bit binaries -> $(CONFIGURE_PREFIX)/bin/$(MACH32)
	32-bit libraries -> $(CONFIGURE_PREFIX)/lib
  	64-bit binaries -> $(CONFIGURE_PREFIX)/bin
	64-bit libraries -> $(CONFIGURE_PREFIX)/lib/$(MACH64)

  if BUILD_BITS=32 or BUILD_BITS=32_and_64 explicitly or BITS is unspecified:
  	32-bit binaries -> $(CONFIGURE_PREFIX)/bin
	32-bit libraries -> $(CONFIGURE_PREFIX)/lib
  	64-bit binaries -> $(CONFIGURE_PREFIX)/bin/$(MACH64)
	64-bit libraries -> $(CONFIGURE_PREFIX)/lib/$(MACH64)
* CC_FOR_BUILD and CXX_FOR_BUILD is included in CONFIGURE_ENV by default to
  ensure that 32-bit and 64-bit host detection works as expected for
  autoconf-based components by specifying the exact compiler and relevant
  $(CC_BITS) for the current build.  It can be set to "" to omit it from
  CONFIGURE_ENV.
* CONFIGURE_CPPFLAGS contains the default set of CPPFLAGS to be included in
  CONFIGURE_ENV.  It can be set to "" to omit it from CONFIGURE_ENV.
* CONFIGURE_DEFAULT_DIRS should be "yes" or "no".  A value of "yes" (the
  default) will trigger the following being passed to CONFIGURE_OPTIONS as
  parameters to corresponding options.
  * CONFIGURE_BINDIR.$(BITS) is the value for the --bindir= option.
  * CONFIGURE_LIBDIR.$(BITS) is the value for the --libdir= option.
  * CONFIGURE_MANDIR.$(BITS) is the value for the --mandir= option.
  * CONFIGURE_SBINDIR.$(BITS) is the value for the --sbindir= option.
* CONFIGURE_ENV is mainly used for passing Makefile variables to configure.
  When should this be used as opposed to CONFIGURE_OPTIONS and
  COMPONENT_BUILD_{ARGS,ENV}?  In general, you want to tell configure how to
  build the software using CONFIGURE_OPTIONS.  But sometimes you need to pass
  values in via the calling environment.  On rare occasions, you still need to
  do things like override MACRO settings in the generated Makefiles with
  COMPONENT_BUILD_ARGS.
* CONFIGURE_LOCALEDIR is a cousin of the other *DIR variables above, but
  rarely used and hence not triggered by CONFIGURE_DEFAULT_DIRS.
* CONFIGURE_OPTIONS is extremely useful, possibly our most used "add-on"
  variable, for passing various options to configure.  These tend to vary per
  component, but --enable-foo and --disable-foo for various values of foo are
  quite common.
* CONFIGURE_PREFIX is the prefix for the various *DIR variables above.  Its
  default is "/usr"; set it if some other value (e.g., "/usr/gnu") is needed.
* CONFIGURE_SCRIPT should be set if the default "$(SOURCE_DIR)/configure" is
  unsuitable for whatever reason.

To override or otherwise modify the default compilation flags used for
components, the following macros are provided:

* CFLAGS by default contains the preferred set of compilation flags for most
  components, which usually includes optimization flags, language mode,
  alignment flags, and multi-threading flags for the current COMPILER.
  CFLAGS.$(COMPILER), CFLAGS.$(COMPILERS).$(BITS),
  CFLAGS.$(COMPILERS).$(MACH), and CFLAGS.$(COMPILERS).$(MACH).$(BITS)
  versions are also available for specifying additional flags or overriding
  the default.
* CXXFLAGS by default contains the preferred set of compilation flags for most
  C++ components, which usually includes optimization flags, language mode,
  alignment flags, and multi-threading flags for the current COMPILER.
  CXXFLAGS.$(COMPILER), CXXFLAGS.$(COMPILERS).$(BITS),
  CXXFLAGS.$(COMPILERS).$(MACH), and CXXFLAGS.$(COMPILERS).$(MACH).$(BITS)
  versions are also available for specifying additional flags or overriding
  the default.
* gcc_OPT has a default value of "-O3".  Bugs in the optimizer have been found
  which have required altering this to "-O2".
* studio_OPT has a default value of "-xO4".  Occasional bugs in the optimizer
  have been found which have required altering this to "-xO3".
* There are also gcc_OPT.$(MACH).$(BITS) and studio_OPT.$(MACH).$(BITS)
  versions of the above available if greater specificity is needed.

For components that use pkg-config, the following macros are provided:

* PKG_CONFIG_PATH contains the default system paths to use when looking for
  pkg-config configuration files.  To specify additional paths to be searched,
  use PKG_CONFIG_PATHS as follows:

  PKG_CONFIG_PATHS += /path/to/pc/files

Finally, for control of packaging-related operations and values used during
publication, the following variables are available:

* All variables named after the pattern COMPONENT_%(COMPONENT_NAME_%), such
  as COMPONENT_ARCHIVE_URL, COMPONENT_ARCHIVE_URL_1, etc.  Refer to ips.mk
  PKG_MACROS and PKG_VARS for a complete list.

* DQ, SQ, Q: a set of convenience macros that expand to ", ', and "
  respectively; $(Q) (or $Q) is simply the default quote with a short name
  for convenience.  For use with values in package manifests where the
  substituted value may contain whitespace.  For example:

  set name=pkg.human-version value=$(DQ)$(HUMAN_VERSION)$(DQ)

* PKG_MACROS: the list of makefile macros that should be exported as defines
  for use in package manifests and pkgmogrify transform files.  Whitespace is
  NOT supported; use of PKG_VARS is strongly preferred for this reason.  The
  expected form each of entry is a key-value pair as follows:

     PKG_MACROS += NAME=NO-WHITESPACE-VALUE

* PKG_VARS: the list of variables that should be exported as defines for use in
  package manifests and pkgmogrify transform files.  This list should generally
  only be added to, not redefined, as follows:

     PKG_VARS += VARIABLE_NAME

  Variable values may contain whitespace, although the value must be quoted
  appropriately in the package manifest if they do.  Variables must be assigned
  before the inclusion of ips.mk.  Values containing whitespace should not be
  quoted when declared in the Makefile; they should only be quoted using the
  appropriate macros in the package manifest.  Values cannot currently contain
  any characters that require shell escaping such as ", ', or *.

* PYVER is defined when processing package manifest files whose name end in
  -PYVER.p5m.  The package manifest will be processed for each version found in
  PYTHON_VERSIONS.  MAYBE_PYVER_SPACE (e.g. '2.7 ') and MAYBE_SPACE_PYVER
  (e.g. ' 2.7') are derived from PYVER if defined.  If PYVER is not defined
  (such as when a generic unversioned Python package manifest is being
  created), these are defined as ''.  perl and ruby follow the same pattern
  and define PERLVER, PERL_VERSIONS, MAYBE_SPACE_PERLVER, MAYBE_PERLVER_SPACE
  and RUBY_VERSION, RUBY_VERSIONS, MAYBE_RUBY_VERSION_SPACE,
  MAYBE_SPACE_RUBY_VERSION respectively.

* TPNO is the Third Party number (i.e., a numeric value): the License
  Technology from the Product Lifecycle Suite tool.  This should be used
  in the common case when there is just one TPNO for a component.  We
  recommend that this be near the top of any Makefile, just below the
  various COMPONENT_foo definitions.

* TPNO_foo is for the rare case (~3% of components) when a component has
  more than one TPNO.  Each one should have a separate short but descriptive
  name substituted for "foo".  This likewise should be near the top of any
  Makefile, just below the various COMPONENT_foo definitions, and it must
  also be before the inclusion of ips.mk.  All variables named after the
  pattern TPNO_% are automatically available for use in package manifests
  and pkgmogrify transform files.
* PKGREPO_REMOVE_BEFORE_PUBLISH allows automatic removal of previously
  published components from PKG_REPO (including obsolete and renamed
  versions). When set as PKGREPO_REMOVE_BEFORE_PUBLISH=yes removal
  occurs immediately prior to pkgsend. default: "no"


---

Now switching from explaining the function of specific variables to a more
general discussion about how to use them to solve problems.  One method that
has served time and again is adding a level of indirection.  For example,
when Python 3 came along, we decided to build it 64-bit only, which meant
its various modules also needed to be built 64-bit only.  But many of them
had BUILD_32_and_64 in their native Makefile.  So how to tweak that macro
to do one thing for Python 2.x but another for 3.x?  JBeck spent an entire
day trying various combinations that seemed right, but none of them worked.
Then Norm pointed out that changing PYTHON_VERSIONS from "3.4 2.7 2.6" to
$(PYTHON3_VERSIONS) and $(PYTHON2_VERSIONS) which in turn were "3.4" and
"2.7 2.6" would do the trick.  I.e., adding a level of indirection solved
the problem, as it allowed $(PYTHON_VERSIONS) to be used to specify 64-bit
macros but $(PYTHON2_VERSIONS) to specify 32-bit macros.  There are many
other places where constructs like this are used.
 
 
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